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森林地下火特征及防控措施

发布时间: 2019-05-30 来源:凯发体育_凯发体育app下载-官方认证

 

  摘要: 在森林地下火燃烧时观测不到火焰,传播速度较慢,燃烧时间长,难以察觉,但在燃烧过程中会产生大量颗粒物和大气污染物,严重危害生态环境和人体健康,造成严重的经济损失。结合国内外研究成果,文中阐述了森林地下火产生的原因、地下火特征及其对环境的危害,并将森林地下火防控先进技术设备与实际工作相结合,提出了构建“空中—地面—地下”多重监测系统和保障消防水源与重视火后管理的森林地下火综合防控措施。旨在为森林防火部门的地下火预防、监测、扑救等工作提供技术支持。 

凯发体育  GUANJIANCI: SENLINDIXIAHUO,TEZHENG,FANGKONGCUOSHI

 

凯发体育  SENLINDIXIAHUOZHUYAOZHIFUZHIZHIHUONITANCENGDERANSHAO,XIANGDUIYUQITASENLINHUOZAI,DIXIAHUOFASHENGPINLVJIAODI,YUEZHANSENLINHUOZAIDE1%ZUOYOU,DANQIZAOCHENGDEWEIHAISHIFENJUDA。SENLINFUZHIZHISHIZHIJINGGUOSHENGWUHUAXUEZUOYONGHOUSENLINDIAOLUOWUZHIXINGCHENGDEKERANWU,DIAOLUOWUFAJIAOFUHUAHOUZHUJIANXINGCHENGFUZHIZHICENG。NITANCENGZESHIZHIWUZAIQUEYANG、SHIRUNDETIAOJIANXIA,TONGGUOYANYANGDAIXIEXINGCHENGDE。

  1  森林地下火概述 

  SENLINDIXIAHUOZAIDIBIAOYIXIARANSHAO,HUANMANMANYAN,DIBIAOGUANCEBUDAOHUOYAN,BINGSHIFANGCHUDALIANGQITI。SENLINDIXIAHUOCHUQINANYICHAJUE,FAXIANSHIHUOQINGYIMANYANKUODA,NANYIKONGZHI。1997—1998NIANYINDUNIXIYADIXIAHUOZAI,DAOZHIDONGNANYADAFANWEIDIQULONGZHAOZAIYINMAIZHONG,SHUBAIWANRENHUANHUXIDAOJIBING,BAIWANGONGQINGTUTIBEIHUI,JINGJISUNSHIDASHUSHIYIMEIYUAN。2009NIANXIBANYAGUOJIAGONGYUANFASHENGDESENLINDIXIAHUO,DUITURANGJIEGOU、DIXIASHUIHANLIANG、SHENGTAIXITONGZAOCHENGLEYANZHONGYINGXIANG。2010NIANELUOSISENLINHUOZAIXIANGDIXIAMANYAN,YINFAYUE50CHUDIXIAHUOZAI,KONGQIWURANMIMANSHUZHOU。2015NIANYINDUNIXIYANANSUMENDALADAOSENLINDIXIAHUOGENGSHIZAOCHENGLE160YIMEIYUANDEJINGJISUNSHI,ZHANGUONEISHENGCHANZONGZHIDE1.9%,GUONEIHEZHOUBIANGEGUOKONGQIWURANYANZHONG,YINDUNIXIYAPOLUOZHOUDEPM2.5ZHISHUGAODA1500,DUISHENGWUDUOYANGXINGHESHENGTAIXITONGPOHUAIYANZHONG。2002NIANWOGUODAXINGANLINGLINQUFASHENGDIXIAHUO,SHULIFUDENGTONGGUODUI2002NIANWOGUODAXINGANLINGLINQUDIXIAHUODEYANJIUFAXIAN,QIHOUTIAOJIANYINGXIANGLEDIXIAHUODEFASHENG,QIEYOUDIBIAOHUOFASHENGDEYUANSHISENLIN,YIYINFADIXIAHUOZAI。

    MUQIAN,SENLINDIXIAHUODEJIANCEHEPUJIUJISHUYANFASHANGCHUYUCHUJIJIEDUAN,DIXIAHUOZAIFASHENGHOU,SENLINFANGHUOBUMENWUFAJISHIFAXIANHUOQING,NANYIZAICHUQIYOUXIAOYIZHIHUOZAI;DANGFAXIANHUOQINGSHI,HUOSHITONGCHANGYIDAMIANJIMANYAN,ZAOCHENGDAGUIMOSUNSHI,HUOSHINANYIKONGZHI。YINCI,ZHONGSHISENLINDIXIAHUODEYOUXIAOYUFANG,CONGYUANTOUJIANGDIDIXIAHUODERANSHAOJILV,BINGWANSHANDIXIAHUODEJIANCEPUJIUJISHU,ZAIHUOZAICHUQIJISHIYIZHIHUOSHIMANYAN,SHIMUQIANLINHUOFANGKONGGONGZUOZHEMIANLINDEZHONGYAORENWU。

  2  引发森林地下火的主要原因 

  SENLINDIXIAHUODERANSHAOGUOCHENGYUYINRANLEISI,DUOFASHENGZAIGANHAN、GAOWENDIQU。SENLINDIXIAHUODEYINFAYUANYINJIAOWEIFUZA,MUQIANGUONEIWAIDUIQIYINFAYUANYINDEYANJIUZHUYAOJIZHONGYUQIHOUHESENLINSHENGTAI2GEFANGMIAN。

  2.1  QIHOUYINGXIANG

  GAOWENSHAOYUDEGANHANJIJIE,SHISENLINDIXIAHUODEGAOFASHIDUAN。HarrisonDENGDUIYINDUNIXIYAJIALIMANDANDIQUDENITANDIXIAHUODIAOCHAFAXIAN,DAGUIMODESENLINDIXIAHUODUOFASHENGZAINIANJUNJIANGYULIANGSHAODENIANFEN;JUTONGJI,1982—1983NIAN、1987NIAN、1991NIAN、1994NIAN、1997—1998NIAN、2002NIANHE2006NIANZHEIXIEJIANGYULIANGDIDENIANFEN,DANGDISENLINDIXIAHUODEFASHENGLVHEGUIMOJUNXIANZHUZENGJIA。

  SUIZHEJIANGYULIANGDEZENGJIA,SENLINDIXIAHUOFASHENGFENGXIANHUIZHUJIANJIANGDI,DANKERANWUZHONGDESHUIFENHUIZAITIANQIQINGLANGSHIZHENGFA,NITANDIBIANDEGANZAOYIRAN,YINCIRENGYOUFASHENGDIXIAHUODEFENGXIAN。KEJIAN,ZAIGANHANSHAOYUDEDIQU,DIMIANHESENLINZHANGSHIJIANCHUYUGANZAOZHUANGTAI,SENLINDIXIAHUOFASHENGDEFENGXIANYOUWEIXIANZHU。

凯发体育  2.2  SHENGTAIPOHUAI

凯发体育  SENLINTUIHUAHESHUITULIUSHIYESHIJIAJUSENLINDIXIAHUOHUOZAIFASHENGFENGXIANDEZHONGYAOYINSU。LIRU,FEIFAKANFACANLIUDEFEIQIWU(KUMU、ZHIGAN、MUXIEDENG)SUIYIDUIJI,CHENGWEIGAOWEIHUOYUAN;JIANGSENLINTUDIZHUANBIANWEINONGTIAN,CAIYONGCHUANTONGDE“HUOSHAOKAIHUANG”FANGFAQINGLITUDI;WEIGUIXIUJIANYUNHEHUOZHEGOUQU,DAOZHINITANDIHANSHUILIANGXIAJIANG、TURANGGANZAOYIRANDENG。TacconiDENGDUI1997NIANFASHENGZAIYINNIDESENLINHUOZAIDIAOCHAFAXIAN,DANGDINONGMINYUNYONGHUOJINXINGTUDIQINGLIDEZUOFASHIDAOZHISENLINHUOZAIHEDAGUIMOKONGQIWURANDEZHUYAOYINSU。

  3  森林地下火的特征 

凯发体育  SENLINDIXIAHUOYUQITASENLINHUOZAIBUTONG,QIRANSHAOFASHENGYUDIXIA,ZAIRANSHAOGUOCHENGZHONGDIBIAOWUHUOYAN,HUOSHITONGSHIYANZONGXIANGHEHENGXIANGMANYAN,DANMANYANSUDUHUANMAN。YIXIAJIANGCONGDIXIAHUODEFENLEIYUMANYANSUDU2GEFANGMIAN,CHANSHUDIXIAHUODETEZHENG。

凯发体育  3.1  SENLINDIXIAHUOLEIXINGJIQITEZHENG

凯发体育  GENJUDIXIAHUODERANSHAOSHENDU,JIANGDIXIAHUOFENWEIBIAOCENGDIXIAHUOYUSHENCENGDIXIAHUO2LEI。BIAOCENGDIXIAHUORANSHAOSHENDUWEI0—20cm,ZHUYAORANSHAOWUWEIZHIWUGENXI、FUZHIZHI、SANLUOZHIGANDENG。SHENCENGDIXIAHUOZHIYOUBIAOCENGDIXIAHUOXIANGXIAMANYANYINQIDE,RANSHAOSHENDUWEI20—50cm。

  BIAOCENGDIXIAHUOXIANGSHENCENGDIXIAHUIMANYANDEYOULITIAOJIANZHUYAOYOUDIXIASHUIWEIDI、TURANGHANSHUILVXIAJIANG、TURANGYOUJIZHIHANLIANGGAO、TURANGKONGXIDUDADENG。BIAOCENGDIXIAHUOXIANGSHENCENGMANYANYURANSHAOSHIJIAN、RANSHAOWENDUJINMIXIANGGUAN。YOUYANJIUZHICHU,DANGBIAOCENGTURANGBEIJIARE(200~400℃)40min,SHENDU5cmCHUDETURANGJIANGHUIRANSHAO,DANGENGSHENCENGDETURANGZEBUHUIRANSHAO。

    ReinDENGSHIYANJIEGUOXIANSHI,DANGTURANGHANSHUILVDIYU125%±10%SHI,YIFASHENGDIXIAHUO;GuitartDENGYANJIURENWEI,DANGTURANGHANSHUILVWEI110%~125%SHI,DIXIAHUODEQIHUOHEMANYANGAILVYUEWEI50%。

  HuangDENGDUIDIXIAHUODERANSHAOGUOCHENGJINXINGLEYANJIU,RENWEIZAIYINRANGUOCHENGZHONG,TURANGKELISHOUXIANFASHENGREJIEFANYINGXINGCHENGJIAOTAN;RANHOUJINXINGYANGHUAFANYING,XINGCHENGHUIFEN。DIXIAHUORANSHAOSHIJIANKEZHANGDASHUYUE,QIEYINRANGUOCHENGZHONGDETANPAIFANGLIANGGAOYUYIBANDEDIBIAORANSHAO,RANSHAOGUOCHENGSUNHAIZHIWUGENXI,ZAOCHENGZHIBEIDAMIANJISIWANG,YINGXIANGSHENGTAIHUANJING,GAIBIANSHENGWUDUOYANGXING。DaviesDENGGUANYUDIXIAHUORANSHAOGUOCHENGZHONGSHUGENBUWEITURANGRANSHAOCHENGDUGENGWEIYANZHONGDEYANJIUJIEGUOYEYANZHENGLEZHEIYIJIELUN。

凯发体育  3.2  DIXIAHUOMANYANTEZHENG

  BUTONGQIHOU、TURANGLEIXINGXIADEDIXIAHUO,MANYANSUDUBUTONG。ChistjakovDENGDUIELUOSIXIBEIBUSENLINDIXIAHUOYANJIUZHICHU,DIXIAHUODECHUANBOSUDUWEI0.5~10 cm/h;WeinDENGDIAOCHAXIANSHI,AODALIYAWEIDUOLIYAZHOUNANBUDIXIAHUOCHUANBOSUDUYUEWEI4.2cm/h,JIANADADIXIAHUODECHUANBOSUDUWEI3~12 cm/h;FernandesYANJIUBIAOMING,DIXIAHUODECHUANBOSUDUYUFENGSUCHENGXIANXINGXIANGGUANGUANXI。

凯发体育  TerrierDENGTONGGUOYANJIUFAXIAN,NITANDIBIAOCENGHANSHUILVDEFENBUYUHUOYUANDEMANYANMIQIEXIANGGUAN,NITANHUOZAIHOUDEJINGGUANTONGCHANGYIBUGUIZEDENITANXIAOHAOWEITEZHENG。GuitartDENGTONGGUOSHIYANSHIMONIYANJIUFAXIAN,DANGTURANGHANSHUILVDIYU150%SHI,DIXIAHUODESHUIPINGCHUANBOSUDUWEI1~9 cm/h,DANGNITANTUDETIJIMIDUXIAOYU75 kg/m3QIEHANSHUILVDIYU150%SHI,DIXIAHUOHUIZAI12cmNEIDESHUIPINGMANYANGUOCHENGZHONGZHUJIANJIANRUOZHIZHIXIMIE;ReardonDENGYANJIUZHICHU,DANGTURANGHANSHUILVWEI150%~200%SHI,DIXIAHUOHUIZAI10cmNEIDESHUIPINGMANYANGUOCHENGZHONGZHUJIANJIANRUOZHIZHIXIMIE。RANER,MUQIANYOUGUANHANSHUILVYUDIXIAHUOMANYANDEGUANXIHAICHUYUCHUJIYANJIUJIEDUAN,XUYAOKEYANRENYUANJINXINGGENGSHENRUDEYANJIU。

  4  森林地下火对环境的危害 

凯发体育  SENLINDIXIAHUOZAIRANSHAOGUOCHENGZHONGHUICHANSHENGDALIANGKELIWUHEDAQIWURANWU,YANZHONGWEIHAISHENGTAIHUANJINGHERENTIJIANKANG。

凯发体育  4.1  TURANGLIHUAXINGZHIBIANCHA

凯发体育  YOUYUTURANGYOUJIZHI、ZHIWUGENXI、YUANSHENGDONGWUJIWEISHENGWUDENGBEISHAOSI,WUJITURANGCENGZHIJIEBAOLUZAIWAI,ZAIYUSHUICHONGSHUAQINSHIXIA,TURANGTUANLIJIEGOUJIETI,DUSAITURANGKONGXI,SHITURANGFASHENGBANJIE,TURANGTONGTOUXINGXIAJIANG。DUIMEIGUOYILINUOSIZHOUDONGLINSHARANGTULINDIYANJIUXIANSHI,HUOSHAOHOUTURANGSHENTOULVWEIHUOSHAOQIANDE1/3ZUOYOU。

  DANGSENLINHUOZAIGUOHOU,TURANGpHZHIZENGJIA,QIZENGJIAFUDUHECHIXUSHIJIANYIBANYUSENLINKERANWU、SENLINHUOZAIDAXIAO、TURANGpHBEIJINGZHIHEJIANGSHUILIANGDENGYINSUYOUGUAN。LINGWAI,TURANGZHONGN、P、K、CaDENGYUANSUHANLIANGYEHUIZAIHUOZAIGUOHOUYOUBUTONGFUDUBIANHUA。

  4.2  HUANJINGWURAN

  SENLINDIXIAHUOZAIRANSHAOGUOCHENGZHONGHUICHANSHENGDALIANGDECO2DENGWENSHIQITI,JIAJUQUANQIUQIHOUBIANNUAN。HUOZAIHAIHUISHIFANGDALIANGDEWEILI,XINGCHENGNONGZHONGDEWUMAI,ZAOCHENGYANZHONGDEDAQIWURAN。

凯发体育  SENLINDIXIAHUOZAIYINRANGUOCHENGZHONGCHANSHENGDENOX、NH3、CH4、CODENGQITIDEHANLIANG,WEIYOUYANRANSHAODE2BEI,BINGCHANSHENGDALIANGXUANFUKELIWU,HAIHUIZAOCHENGSHUITULIUSHI、SHENGTAIHEHUANJINGPOHUAI。JUBAODAO,1997NIANYINNIDIXIAHUOCHANSHENGDALIANGYOUDU、YOUHAIQITIJIYANCHEN,DAOZHIXINJIAPO、MALAIXIYADENGDIZHONGDUWURAN。

  4.3  SHENGTAIPOHUAI

  GENJUYAZHOUKAIFAYINXING(ADB)DEYANJIU,1997NIANQUANQIUSENLINDIXIAHUOHUOZAICHANSHENGLE1530WANtDETANPAIFANG(ZHANZONGTANPAIFANGLIANGDE75%)HE500WANtDEFENCHENKELI,FENCHENKELIKEYIJIASUGUANGHUAXUEFANYING、YINGXIANGGUANGDECHUANBOLUXIANBINGJIANGDIDAQINENGJIANDU,ZHIJIEHEJIANJIEDIYINGXIANGQUANQIUQIHOUBIANHUA。LINGJUPageDENGYANJIUXIANSHI,1997NIANYINDUNIXIYADESENLINHUOZAIZAOCHENGDEWENSHIQITIPAIFANGLIANGXIANGDANGYUDANGNIANQUANQIUTANPAIFANGLIANGDE13%~40%,YINGXIANGQUANQIUQIHOUBIANHUA。

凯发体育  SENLINDIXIAHUOZAIRANSHAOGUOCHENGZHONGCHANSHENGDEDALIANGKELIWU,FUGAIZAIZHIWUYEPIANBIAOMIAN,DAOZHIZHIBEISHENGWUDAIXIEGONGNENGPOHUAIJIQIKONGDUSAI。UzuDENGYANJIUXIANSHI,YEPIANSHANGDEKELIWUCHENJIGUODUOHUIDAOZHIYELVSU Ca/ CbZHISHANGSHENG、YELVSUZONGHANLIANGXIAJIANG。

  5  森林地下火防控措施 

凯发体育  YOUYUQIHOUHESHENGTAIYINSUDUISENLINDIXIAHUODECHANSHENGYOUZHONGYAOYINGXIANG,YINCIDUISENLINDIXIAHUODEFANGKONG,YINGZHUZHONGDUICHUQIHUOSHIDEHUOQINGYUFANGCUOSHI、YOUXIAOJIANCEBINGJINGZHUNDINGWEI、GAOXIAOPUJIUHEHUOHOUGUANLIDENGJIGEFANGMIAN。

凯发体育  5.1  HUOQINGYUFANG

  5.1.1  RENYUANPEIXUN

  SENLINHUOZAIPUJIUXUYAODALIANGDEXIAOFANGRENYUAN,DANCHUNYIKAOXIAOFANGBUMENDEXIAOFANGRENYUAN,BUJINCUNZAIRENLIBUZUDEWENTI,HAIMIANLINJIESHOUHUOQINGZHIHOU,WUFAJISHIDAODAHUOCHANGDENGKUNNAN。TONGGUOZUZHISENLINHUOCHANGZHOUWEIJUMIN,CHENGLIMINJIANXIAOFANGZHIYUANDUI,KEYIYOUXIAOHUANJIEYISHANGDEWENTI。AODALIYA、MEIGUO、RIBENDENGGUOJIAXIAOFANGZHIYUANZHEHUODONGKAIZHANJIAOZAO,YIJINGXINGCHENGLEJIAOWEIWANZHENGDETIXI。ZAISENLINHUOZAIGAOFADIQU,FADONGQUNZHONG,ZUZHIXIAOFANGZHIYUANDUI,BINGWEIQITIGONGZHUANYEDEXIAOFANGPEIXUNHEXIAOFANGZHUANGBEI。HUOZAIFASHENGSHI,ZHIYUANZHEYIFANGMIANJISHIJIANGHUOQINGXINXITONGBAOJIDANGDIXIAOFANGBUMEN,LINGYIFANGMIANZUZHIRENLIDUIQIANQIHUOZAIZHANKAIJIJIBUJIU,JIANHUANHUOZAIKUOSAN。

  5.1.2  SHUIYUANBIAOJI

  ZHENDUIDIXIAHUOGAOFADIQU,YINGDUIQUYUNEIDEDIBIAOSHUIYUANHEDIXIASHUIYUANJINXINGXIANGXICEHUI,BINGZAIDITUHESHIDIZUOXIANZHUBIAOJI,QUEBAOHUOZAIFASHENGSHI,JIUYUANRENYUANNENGXUNSUCONGSHUIYUANQUSHUIJINXINGXIAOFANGHUODONG。JIANGLINQUHUAFENWEIBUTONGXIAOFANGQUKUAI,MEIGEXIAOFANGQUKUAIYINGJUBEIZHISHAOYOU1GESHUILIANGCHONGZUDEXIAOFANGSHUIYUAN。ZAIDIXIASHUIFENGFUDEDIQU,KEYITONGGUODAJING、SHUIBENGDENGCUOSHI,LIYONGDIXIASHUIGONGJISENLINXIAOFANG;ZAIDIBIAOSHUISHUIXIFAYUFENGFUDEDIQU,KEYITONGGUOXIUJIANSHUIQU、XIAOXINGSHUIBA、SHUITA、CHITANGDENGCUOSHIGONGJIXIAOFANGYONGSHUI。GEQUKUAIDEXIAOFANGSHUIYUANYINGJINLIANGLIANTONG,YIQUEBAOZAIHANJI、HUOZAIQIJIAN,XIAOFANGSHUIYUANSHUILIANGCHONGZU。

  5.1.3  LINDIWEIHU

  SHULIFUDENGTONGGUODUIZHONGGUODAXINGANLINGLINQUDEDIXIAHUOYANJIUFAXIAN,DANGQIHOUYANREGANZAO、ZHENGFALIANGDASHI,TURANGHANSHUILVXIAJIANGDAO40%YIXIA,CISHIDESENLINDIXIAHUOFASHENGBINGMANYANDEJILVXIANZHUTISHENG。KEJIAN,BAOCHITURANGHANSHUILVSHIYUFANGDIXIAHUOFASHENGDEZHONGYAOTUJINGZHIYI。

凯发体育  ZAIGAOWENSHAOYUDEQIHOUTIAOJIANXIA,LINQUKEYITONGGUOFEIJISASHUI、DIBIAOPENSA、RENGONGCHONGLINDENGFANGSHI,BUCHONGTURANGSHUIFEN,SHITURANGHANSHUILVWEICHIZAIJIAOGAOSHUIPING,BAOCHIDIMIANSHIRUN,CONGERJIANGDIDIXIAHUODEFASHENGJILV。LINGWAI,YOUYUSENLINDIXIAHUODADUOSHIYOUYUDIBIAOHUORANSHAO,WENDUCHUANDAOZHIDIXIA,CONGERYINQIDIXIAHUOMANYAN,YINCIZUZHIZHUANYEQINGLINRENYUAN,DINGSHIQINGLIRONGYIYINQIDIBIAOHUODEKUMUKUZHI、AIXIAOGUANMU、DUIJILUOYE、FUZHIZHIDENG,YESHIYUFANGDIXIAHUODEYOUXIAOTUJING。

凯发体育  5.2  HUOQINGJIANCE

  DUIDIXIAHUOQINGDEJISHIJIANKONGSHIFANGKONGDIXIAHUOGONGZUODENANDIAN。DIXIAHUOZAIRANSHAOGUOCHENGZHONGHUISHIFANGRELIANGHECHANSHENGQITI,KEYITONGGUODUITURANGWENDUHEDAQIZHONGQITICHENGFENHANLIANGDEJIANCE,SHIXIANDUISENLINDIXIAHUODEJIANCE,JISHIZHUNQUEDIJIANGHUOQINGXINXICHUANDIJIXIANGGUANBUMEN。JIANCEFANGFAZHUYAOWEI: QUANMIANDIAOCHASENLINDEDIZHI、SHUIWEN、QIXIANGDENGYINSU,SHOUJILINIANLAIDESENLINDIXIAHUOJILU,TONGJIDIXIAHUODEGAOFASHIDUANHEQUYU。LIYONGQIXIANGYINSUZAOQIYUJING,CHUBUPANDUANDIXIAHUODEFASHENGGAILV,ZUZHIRENYUANJINXINGZHONGDIANDINGFANG,GOUJIAN“KONGZHONG—DIMIAN—DIXIA”DUOZHONGJIANCEXITONG。

  5.2.1  KONGZHONGJIANCE

凯发体育  LIYONGGAOMINGANDUWEIXINGCHUANGANJIANCE: MUQIAN,WOGUOGUOJIALINYEJUSENLINFANGHUOYUJINGJIANCEXINXIZHONGXINZHUYAOTONGGUOJIESHOUMEIGUOGUOJIAHAIYANGHEDAQIGUANLIJUDENOAAXILIEQIXIANGWEIXING(NOAA-12、NOAA-14、NOAA-15、NOAA-16),YIJIZHONGGUODEFY1C-FY1DQIXIANGWEIXING(FY1CU、FY1D)DEZILIAO,RANHOUDUISENLINHUOZAIREDIANJINXINGTUXIANGCHULIHEDINGWEI,BINGZAIWANGLUOSHANGJINXINGREDIANXINXIDEFABU,CONGERSHIXIANSENLINHUOZAIXINXIDEJISHICHUANSONG。WOGUO“DAXINGANLING5·6”DAHUO,JIUSHIYOUQIXIANGWEIXINGFAXIAN,BINGJIANGHUOCHANGWEIZHI、HUOSHIMANYANDENGXINXICHUANHUIFANGHUOZHIHUIBUMEN。2010NIAN,KushidaDENGLIYONGWEIXINGMODISYAOGANTUXIANG,JIANLILESENLINHUOZAISHIBIEMOXING,QISHIYANFANGZHENJIEGUOSHIBIELVWEI80%。YANGGUANGDENGLIYONGWEIXINGYUBAOHEILONGJIANGDAXINGANLINGHUOZAIZHUNQUEXING(2005—2015NIAN)JIEGUOXIANSHI,WEIXINGREDIANCHUPANHUOZAIFASHENGSHUJUDEZHUNQUEDUWEI79.7%。

凯发体育  LIYONGHONGWAIRECHENGXIANGZAIXIANJIANCE: XIANYOUPUTONGSHIPINJIANCEXITONGNANYIFAXIANYINBIHUOYUAN,ERHONGWAIRECHENGXIANGYIXIANGBIYUPUTONGSHIPINJIANCEXITONG,JUYOUBUSHOUGUANGXIANXIANZHIDEYOUDIAN,KEYIXUNSUDUINONGYAN、DIXIAHUO、YINXINGHUODENGNANYIFAJUEDEHUOQINGJINXINGJIANCE。ZAIDILIXINXIXITONGZHONG,KEYIDUISENLINJINXINGHONGGUANKONGZHI,BINGKEYIZHIHUIMIEHUOZUOYE。TONGSHI,KEYIZAIDITUSHANGHUIZHIXIAOFANGXINGDONG,YONGYIGENZONGHUOZAIQINGKUANGBINGWEIXIAOFANGTIGONGBANGZHU。CIWAI,DILIXINXIXITONGHAIKEYIYONGYUFENXIDIXING、HUOZAIMANYANFENXI、KESHIHUAFENXIYIJIHUOZAIDEZUIJIALUJINGFENXIDENG。JIADAOXIANGDENGJIYUGISHONGWAISHIPINJIANKONG,YANJIULEJIANGSHIPINYUDITUXIANGPIPEIDELINHUODINGWEIFANGFA,BINGJIANGQITUIGUANGYINGYONGYUZHINENGSHOUJI,YIBIANSUISHISHIXIANZHEHUODIANDEDINGWEI。

  LIYONGWURENJIXUNHANGJIANCE: WURENJIDIKONGJIANCEXITONGJUYOUJIDONGXINGHAO、CHENGBENDI、WEIHUCAOZUOJIANDANDENGTEDIAN。WURENJIYONGYOUKUAISUXUNLUOHESHISHIJIANKONGDIMIANDENENGLI,ZAISENLINHUOZAIJIANCEHEJIUYUANZHIHUIFANGMIANYOUQIDUTEDEYOUSHI。KEYILIYONGWURENJIDAZAIGPS、REHONGWAICHENGXIANGGUANGPUYIHEQITIJIANCESHEBEI,SHIXIANDUIDIXIAHUODEJIANCE。WURENFEIXINGQI(UAV)PEIBEIHONGWAITANCERENWUFUHE,ZAIJUDIMIAN800~2000mDEGAODUSHISHIGUANCEDIMIANHUOCHANG,BINGSHISHIJIANGCAIJIDAODETUXIANGSHUJUFANHUIDIMIAN。WEIDIMIANXIAOFANGBUMENTIGONGDILIZUOBIAO、ZHEHUOQUYUHEBIANJIE、HUOQINGMANYANQINGKUANGDENGXINXI,YOULIYUXIAOFANGBUDUIKUAISUBUSHUXIAOFANGRENYUAN,JISHITONGZHIXIAOFANGDUIYUANCHELIWEIXIANQUYU,BINGGENJUHUOZAITUXIANGXINXIWEIXIAOFANGYUANTIGONGSHUSANLUJING。2004NIANMEIGUO“SHUISHOU”WURENJI,DAZAILEIDAXITONGHEHONGWAISHEXIANGJI,CANYULELINHUOJIANCEYUPUJIUGONGZUO;2006NIANMEIGUOGUOJIAHANGKONGHANGTIANJU(NASA)SHIYONGWURENJIDAZAIREXIANGYIYULEIDA,JINXINGLINHUOJIANCE,YEQUDELELIANGHAOXIAOGUO。

  LIYONGDIXIAHUOGAOFAQULIAOWANGTAIJIANCE: GENJUQIANQIYANJIU,HUAFENDIXIAHUOGAOFAQUYU,SHEZHIHUOZAILIAOWANGTAI,ANPAIGONGZUORENYUANQUANTIANHOUJINXINGDIXIAHUOJIANCEYUJING。LIAOWANGTAIKEPEIZHIGEZHONGYIQISHEBEI,RUHONGWAITANCEYI、WANGYUANJING、FANGWEIPAN、CEHUIYI、DIANHUAJI(HUODUIJIANGJI)、DIANYUAN、JISUANQI、DIXINGTU,YIJIQITABIXUDEWUPIN。

凯发体育  5.2.2  DIMIANJIANCE

凯发体育  LIYONGBIANXIESHIHONGWAICEWENSHEBEIJIANCE: YOUYUDIXIAHUODEYINBIXINGTEDIAN,DANDUYIKAOWEIXING、WURENJI、HONGWAIZAIXIANJIANCEDENGFANGFAHENNANJISHIFAXIANCHUQIDIXIAHUOHUOQING,DUIDIXIAHUOHUOCHANGBIANJIEDEMIAOHUIYEBUZHUNQUE。BIANXIESHIHONGWAICEWENSHEBEIYIBANYONGYUTANXUNHUOSHAOJIDIBIANYUANDEYINHUOHUODIXIAHUODEHUOCHANGBIANJIE。GAIYIQIPEIYOUXIANSHIQI,TIJIXIAO,ZHONGLIANGQING,XIEDAIFANGBIAN,DIANCHINAIJIUXINGQIANG。SAOMIAOTONGCHANGYOU2RENJINXING,1RENSAOMIAO,1RENQINGLIYUHUO。

凯发体育  LIYONGQITIJIANCESHEBEIJIANCE: ZAIYIXIEMAOMILINDI,YOUYUSHUMUZHIYEDEZHEDANG,DANDUYIKAOWENDUTANCEBINGPANDUANDIXIAHUOHUOQINGDEFANGFAMIANLINZHEHUOQINGTANCEBUZHUNQUE、HUOQINGCHUANDIZHIHOUDENGWENTI。YOUYUDIXIAHUODERANSHAOHUISHIFANGDALIANGQITI,YINCIKEYITONGGUODUIQITICHENGFENDEJIANCE,QUEDINGSHIFOUYOUSENLINDIXIAHUOFASHENG。TONGGUOZAIXIANHUOSHOUCHISHIQITIJIANCESHEBEI,JIANCEDIXIAHUOZHISHIQITIRUDANYANGHUAWU、ANQI、COHEYOUJIKELIDENGDEHANLIANG,DANGZHISHIQITIHANLIANGDADAOHUOXIANLINJIEZHISHI,ZEXUYAOJINGTIDIXIAHUODEFASHENG,BINGZUOHAODIXIAHUOPUJIUZHUNBEI。DUIYUYIJINGFASHENGDIXIAHUODEQUYU,KEYILIYONGQITIJIANCESHEBEICHUBUPANDUANDIXIAHUOMANYANQINGKUANGHEHUOCHANGBIANJIE,WEIHOUXUDIXIAHUOPUJIUYUHUOHOUJIANGUANGONGZUOTIGONGKEKAOHUOQINGXINXI。

  5.2.3  DIXIAJIANCE

  DIXIAHUOTONGCHANGZAIDIXIAHUANMANMANYAN,ZAIDIMIANBUYICHAJUE,DIXIAHUORANSHAOSHENDUKEYIDADAO30cmYISHANG,YINCIYOUBIYAOSHISHIJIANKONGDIXIAWENDU,YICIJINGQUEJIANKONGBINGYUJINGDIXIAHUO。ZAIDIXIAHUOGAOFADIQU,YUMAIWENDUCHUANGANQI,SHISHICHUANSONGDIXIAWENDU,BINGZAIGAOWENSHIBAOJING,CONGERSHIXIANDIXIAHUOHUOQINGDEJISHICHUANDI。TONGGUOJIANCEBUTONGDIANWEIDEDIXIAHUOWENDUDEBIANHUA,KEYIPANDUANDIXIAHUOMANYANQUSHI。

  5.3  HUOSHIPUJIU

  TONGGUOSHIJIANFAXIAN,PUJIUSENLINDIXIAHUOCAIYONGGEDUANFABIJIAOYOUXIAO。GEDUANFASHITONGGUOJIXIE、RENLIDENGSHOUDUANPOHUAIDIXIAKERANWUDELIANXUXING,CONGERQIEDUANDIXIAHUODEMANYAN,YOUXIAODIKONGZHIDIXIAHUODEFAZHAN。GEDUANFAZHUYAOCAIYONGHAO、QIAO、FUZI、PA、KAIGOUJIDENG,JINXINGZHIJIEPUDAYUJIANJIEPUDA。

凯发体育  5.3.1  ZHIJIEPUDA

凯发体育  JIANGDIXIAHUOCHANGDEDIBIAOYONGRENGONGHUOJUETUJIWAKAI、QIEDUANHUOXIAN,XIANGDIXIAHUOJIAOSHUIHUOYONGXINTUYANMAI,JIANGHUOZHIJIEPUMIE。DUIHUOYANGAODUJIAODI、HUOQIANGDUJIAOXIAODEHUOCHANG,PUHUORENYUANXIANXIAOMIEMINGHUO,ZAIQINGLIHUOXIANBIANYUANDEYUHUO,JIANGZHENGZAIRANSHAODEKERANWULOUJINHUOXIANNEICE,ZUIHOUYANHUOXIANXIANGHUOCHANGNEICE5MICHUWACHU30~50cmKUANDEFANGHUOGOU,ZUGELINHUODEMANYAN。DUIHUOYANGAODUJIAOGAO、HUOQIANGDUJIAODAHUOCHANG,PUDASHIYAOXUANZHIBEIXIANGDUIXISHAODEDIDAI,ZAIWEIXINGCHENGSHUGUANHUOSHANGZAIDIBIAORANSHAOJIEDUAN,HUOLIYONGYEJIANFENGXIAO、WENDUDIJIXIASHANHUOMANYANSUDUMANDENGYOULITIAOJIAN,XIAOMIEMINGHUOBINGYANHUOXIANBIANYUANXIANGLICEQINGLIYUHUO,YANHUOXIANWACHUFANGHUOGOU,ZUGEDIBIAOHUOJIDIXIAHUODEMANYAN。

凯发体育  5.3.2  JIANJIEPUDA

凯发体育  DUIYIFAXIANDEDIXIAHUOQU,LIYONGGEGUANJI、YOUJU、SHOUJU、TIEQIAODENGZAIJUHUOXIANQIANFANGYIDINGJULIDEWEIZHIKAISHEFANGHUOGELIDAI,BINGZAIGELIDAINEIWACHUFANGHUOGOU,JIANGDIXIAHUOFENGBIZAIYIGEXIAOQUFANWEINEIRANSHAO,SHIHUOXIANBUZAIKUODAMANYAN。TONGCHANGJIANJIEPUDAFABUDANDUSHIYONG,ERSHIYUZHIJIEPUDAFAPEIHESHIYONG。

  5.4  HUOHOUGUANLI

  TinnerDENGTONGGUOSHIJIANXULIEHESHUXUEJIANMOFA,DUIRUIDIANNANBUZHIBEIZUCHENGYANJIUFAXIAN,SHUQIANNIANQIANDESENLINHUOZAIJIANSHAOLEZHIWUHUAFENDEDUOYANGXING,DAOZHIZHIWUYANTIPIANLIYUANBENFANGXIANG。GroganDENGDUIMEIGUOJIALIFUNIYADIQUSENLINHUOZAIYANJIURENWEI,SENLINHUOZAIHUIYINGXIANGZHIBEIDUINDEXISHOU,CONGERSHISHENGTAIXITONGXINGCHENGBUTONGBANKUAI。KEJIAN,HUOZAIGUOHOUYINGJISHIDUIFASHENGHUOZAIDIQUDESHENGTAIHUANJINGJINXINGRENWEIGANYU,JIASUQISHENGTAIHUIFUJINCHENG。

凯发体育  1)ZAIZHONGNAIHUOSHUZHONG。TONGGUOZAIZHONGKERANXINGCHA、NAIHUOXINGQIANGDESHUZHONG,XINGCHENGSHENGWUFANGHUOLINDAI,CONGERJIANGDISENLINHUOZAIDEFASHENGGAILVYUMANYANSUDU。GUOWAIDUINAIHUOSHUZHONGDEYANJIUJIAOZAO,ZAOZAI1976NIANJIUKAISHIZAIZHONGBEIMEISHANYANG(Populus tremuloides)ZUOWEIFANGHUOLINDAI;BambangDENGTONGGUOYANJIU,SHAIXUANCHUHONGMUHE(Schima wallichii)、ZITAN(Pterocarpus indicus)DENG15ZHONGNAIHUOXINGQIANGDESHUZHONG。WOGUOXUEZHEYETONGGUOYANJIUQUEDINGLEDUOZHONGNAIHUOXINGQIANGDESHUZHONG,RUSHIHEZAIWOGUONANFANGZAIZHONGDEMUHE(S. superba)、NVZHEN(Ligustrum lucidum)、QINGGANGLI(Quercus glauca)DENG,YIJISHIHEZAIBEIFANGZAIZHONGDESHUIQULIU(Fraxinus mandshurica)、YANGSHU(Populus sp.)、LUOYESONG(Larix spp.)DENG。

  2)CUJINSHENGTAIXIUFU。RUQIANSUOSHU,DANGFASHENGSENLINHUOZAIHOU,HUIYINGXIANGTURANGDELIHUAXINGZHI,QIZHONGTURANGSHUIFENYUYOUJIZHIHANLIANGDEJIANSHAO,SHIYINGXIANGHUOHOUSHENGTAIXIUFUDEZHONGYAOYINSU。ZAIZHONGDUHUOSHAOQIEHUANJINGELIEDETURANGSHANG,YINGJINXINGRENGONGXIUZHENG,TONGGUOGAILIANGTURANGLIHUAXINGZHI,BAOZHENGZHIBEIDESHENGZHANGHUIFU,YIBANKECAIQURENGONGFUZHUYINRUYOUMIAOBINGWEIHUYOUMIAOSHENGZHANGHUANJINGDEFANGFACUJINSHENGTAIXIUFU。

  6  结语与展望 

凯发体育  MUQIAN,GUONEIWAIDUISENLINDIXIAHUODEYANJIUJIAOSHAO,QIEZHUYAOJIZHONGYUDIXIAHUORANSHAOGUOCHENGZHONGDETANPAIFANGLIANG,YIJIDIXIAHUORANSHAOHOUDUISHENGTAIHUANJINGDEYINGXIANG,DUIDIXIAHUODERANSHAOJILIHEYUFANGPUJIUHAICHUYUCHUJIJIEDUAN。DUIWEILAISENLINDIXIAHUODEYANJIUJIANYICONGYIXIAJIGEFANGMIANJIAQIANGYANJIU。

  1)RANSHAOJILI。SHENRUTANJIUSENLINDIXIAHUODERANSHAOYUANYIN、MANYANJIZHI、XINGWEITEZHENGDENG,WEISENLINDIXIAHUODEYUFANGYUJIANCEPUJIUDAXIAJIANSHIJICHU。

  2)HUOQINGJIANCE。DIXIAHUOQINGNANYICHAJUE,WEIHAIJUDA,YINGZHELIJIANSHEJISHIGAOXIAODESENLINDIXIAHUOJIANCETIXI,YIBIANJISHIDINGWEIDIXIAHUOQINGYUMANYANQUSHI,WEIHOUXUDEDIXIAHUOPUJIUTIGONGXIANGSHIXINXI。

  3)PUJIUJISHU。ZHENDUIDIXIAHUORANSHAOTEDIAN,KAIFAXINXINGPUJIUSHEBEI,GAISHANYUANYOUPUJIUFANGFA,SHIXIANDIXIAHUODEGAOXIAOPUJIU,BINGBIMIANDIXIAHUOZHUANHUAWEIDIBIAOHUOHESHUGUANHUO。(TANGSHUYUAN LIHUA DANYANLONG XIAOYUN YINSAINAN)

 

凯发体育  DIYIZUOZHE: TANGSHUYUAN,NV,SHUOSHI,JIANGSHI,YANJIUFANGXIANGHUANJINGKEXUE

  TONGXINZUOZHE: DANYANLONG,NAN,BOSHI,JIAOSHOU,YANJIUFANGXIANGLINHUOSHENGTAIHELINHUOGUANLI

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